contents table
Capital Requirements Regulation (CRR)
Article 411

Article 411 — Definitions

For the purposes of this Part, the following definitions apply:

  1. financial customer means a customer, including a financial customer belonging to a non-financial corporate group, which performs one or more of the activities listed in Annex I to Directive 2013/36/EU as its main business, or which is one of the following:
    1. a credit institution;
    2. an investment firm;
    3. a securitisation special purpose entity (SSPE);
    4. a collective investment undertaking (CIU);
    5. a non-open ended investment scheme;
    6. an insurance undertaking;
    7. a reinsurance undertaking;
    8. a financial holding company or mixed-financial holding company;
    9. a financial institution;
    10. a pension scheme arrangement as defined in point (10) of Article 2 of Regulation (EU) No 648/2012;
  2. retail deposit means a liability to a natural person or to a SME, where the SME would qualify for the retail exposure class under the standardised or IRB approaches for credit risk, or a liability to a company which is eligible for the treatment set out in Article 153(4), and where the aggregate deposits by that SME or company on a group basis do not exceed EUR 1 million;
  3. personal investment company or PIC means an undertaking or a trust, the owner or beneficial owner of which is either a natural person or a group of closely related natural persons which does not carry out any other commercial, industrial or professional activity and which was set up with the sole purpose of managing the wealth of the owner or owners, including ancillary activities such as segregating the owners' assets from corporate assets, facilitating the transmission of assets within a family or preventing a split of the assets after the death of a member of the family, provided that those ancillary activities are connected to the main purpose of managing the owners' wealth;
  4. deposit broker means a natural person or an undertaking that places deposits from third parties, including retail deposits and corporate deposits but excluding deposits from financial institutions, with credit institutions in exchange of a fee;
  5. unencumbered assets means assets which are not subject to any legal, contractual, regulatory or other restriction preventing the institution from liquidating, selling, transferring, assigning or, generally, disposing of those assets via an outright sale or a repurchase agreement;
  6. non-mandatory overcollateralisation means any amount of assets which the institution is not obliged to attach to a covered bond issuance by virtue of legal or regulatory requirements, contractual commitments or for reasons of market discipline, including in particular where the assets are provided in excess of the minimum legal, statutory or regulatory overcollateralisation requirement applicable to the covered bonds under the national law of a Member State or a third country;
  7. asset coverage requirement means the ratio of assets to liabilities as determined in accordance with the national law of a Member State or a third country for credit enhancement purposes in relation to covered bonds;
  8. margin loans means collateralised loans extended to customers for the purpose of taking leveraged trading positions;
  9. derivative contracts means the derivative contracts listed in Annex II and credit derivatives;
  10. stress means a sudden or severe deterioration in the solvency or liquidity position of an institution due to changes in market conditions or idiosyncratic factors as a result of which there is a significant risk that the institution becomes unable to meet its commitments as they become due within the next 30 days;
  11. level 1 assets means assets of extremely high liquidity and credit quality as referred to in the second subparagraph of Article 416(1);
  12. level 2 assets means assets of high liquidity and credit quality as referred to in the second subparagraph of Article 416(1) of this Regulation; level 2 assets are further subdivided into level 2A and 2B assets as set out in the delegated act referred to in Article 460(1);
  13. liquidity buffer means the amount of level 1 and level 2 assets that an institution holds in accordance with the delegated act referred to in Article 460(1);
  14. net liquidity outflows means the amount which results from deducting an institution's liquidity inflows from its liquidity outflows;
  15. reporting currency means the currency of the Member State where the head office of the institution is located;
  16. factoring means a contractual agreement between a business (the assignor) and a financial entity (the factor) in which the assignor assigns or sells its receivables to the factor in exchange for the factor providing the assignor with one or more of the following services with regard to the receivables assigned:
    1. an advance of a percentage of the amount of the assigned receivables, generally short term, uncommitted and without automatic roll-over;
    2. receivables management, collection and credit protection, whereby, in general, the factor administers the assignor's sales ledger and collects the receivables in the factor's own name;

    for the purposes of Title IV, factoring shall be treated as trade finance;

  17. committed credit or liquidity facility means a credit or liquidity facility that is irrevocable or conditionally revocable.