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Capital Requirements Regulation (CRR)
Article 221

Article 221 — Using the internal models approach for master netting agreements

  1. Subject to permission of competent authorities, institutions may, as an alternative to using the Supervisory Volatility Adjustments Approach or the Own Estimates Approach in calculating the fully adjusted exposure value (E*) resulting from the application of an eligible master netting agreement covering repurchase transactions, securities or commodities lending or borrowing transactions, or other capital market driven transactions other than derivative transactions, use an internal models approach which takes into account correlation effects between security positions subject to the master netting agreement as well as the liquidity of the instruments concerned.
  2. Subject to the permission of the competent authorities, institutions may also use their internal models for margin lending transactions, where the transactions are covered under a bilateral master netting agreement that meets the requirements set out in Chapter 6, Section 7.
  3. An institution may choose to use an internal models approach independently of the choice it has made between the Standardised Approach and the IRB Approach for the calculation of risk-weighted exposure amounts. However, where an institution seeks to use an internal models approach, it shall do so for all counterparties and securities, excluding immaterial portfolios where it may use the Supervisory Volatility Adjustments Approach or the Own Estimates Approach as laid down in Article 220.

    Institutions that have received permission for an internal risk-measurement model under Title IV, Chapter 5 may use the internal models approach. Where an institution has not received such permission, it may still apply for permission to the competent authorities to use an internal models approach for the purposes of this Article.

  4. Competent authorities shall permit an institution to use an internal models approach only where they are satisfied that the institution's system for managing the risks arising from the transactions covered by the master netting agreement is conceptually sound and implemented with integrity and where the following qualitative standards are met:
    1. the internal risk-measurement model used for calculating the potential price volatility for the transactions is closely integrated into the daily risk-management process of the institution and serves as the basis for reporting risk exposures to the senior management of the institution;
    2. the institution has a risk control unit that meets all the following requirements:
      1. it is independent from business trading units and reports directly to senior management;
      2. it is responsible for designing and implementing the institution's risk-management system;
      3. it produces and analyses daily reports on the output of the risk-measurement model and on the appropriate measures to be taken in terms of position limits;
    3. the daily reports produced by the risk-control unit are reviewed by a level of management with sufficient authority to enforce reductions of positions taken and of overall risk exposure;
    4. the institution has sufficient staff skilled in the use of sophisticated models in the risk control unit;
    5. the institution has established procedures for monitoring and ensuring compliance with a documented set of internal policies and controls concerning the overall operation of the risk-measurement system;
    6. the institution's models have a proven track record of reasonable accuracy in measuring risks demonstrated through the back-testing of its output using at least one year of data;
    7. the institution frequently conducts a rigorous programme of stress testing and the results of these tests are reviewed by senior management and reflected in the policies and limits it sets;
    8. the institution conducts, as part of its regular internal auditing process, an independent review of its risk-measurement system. This review shall include both the activities of the business trading units and of the independent risk-control unit;
    9. at least once a year, the institution conducts a review of its risk-management system;
    10. the internal model meets the requirements set out in Article 292(8) and (9) and in Article 294.
  5. An institution's internal risk-measurement model shall capture a sufficient number of risk factors in order to capture all material price risks.

    An institution may use empirical correlations within risk categories and across risk categories where its system for measuring correlations is sound and implemented with integrity.

  6. Institutions using the internal models approach shall calculate E* in accordance with the following formula:
    $${E ^{*}} = {\max \left \{0, \left ({\sum E _{i}} - {\sum C _{i}}\right ) + \text{potential change in value}\right \}}$$

    where:

    • Ei = the exposure value for each separate exposure i under the agreement that would apply in the absence of the credit protection, where institutions calculate the risk-weighted exposure amounts under the Standardised Approach or where they calculate risk-weighted exposure amounts and expected loss amounts under the IRB Approach;
    • Ci = the value of the securities borrowed, purchased or received or the cash borrowed or received in respect of each such exposure i.

    When calculating risk-weighted exposure amounts using internal models, institutions shall use the previous business day's model output.

  7. The calculation of the potential change in value referred to in paragraph 6 shall be subject to all the following standards:
    1. it shall be carried out at least daily;
    2. it shall be based on a 99th percentile, one-tailed confidence interval;
    3. it shall be based on a 5-day equivalent liquidation period, except in the case of transactions other than securities repurchase transactions or securities lending or borrowing transactions where a 10-day equivalent liquidation period shall be used;
    4. it shall be based on an effective historical observation period of at least one year except where a shorter observation period is justified by a significant upsurge in price volatility;
    5. the data set used in the calculation shall be updated every three months.

    Where an institution has a repurchase transaction, a securities or commodities lending or borrowing transaction and margin lending or similar transaction or netting set which meets the criteria set out in Article 285(2), (3) and (4), the minimum holding period shall be brought in line with the margin period of risk that would apply under those paragraphs, in combination with Article 285(5).

  8. For the purpose of calculating risk-weighted exposure amounts and expected loss amounts for repurchase transactions or securities or commodities lending or borrowing transactions or other capital market-driven transactions covered by master netting agreements, institutions shall use E* as calculated under paragraph 6 as the exposure value of the exposure to the counterparty arising from the transactions subject to the master netting agreement for the purposes of Article 113 under the Standardised Approach or Chapter 3 under the IRB Approach.
  9. EBA shall develop draft regulatory technical standards to specify the following:
    1. what constitutes an immaterial portfolio for the purpose of paragraph 3;
    2. the criteria for determining whether an internal model is sound and implemented with integrity for the purpose of paragraphs 4 and 5 and master netting agreements.

    EBA shall submit those draft regulatory technical standards to the Commission by 31 December 2015.

    Power is delegated to the Commission to adopt the regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph in accordance with Articles 10 to 14 of Regulation (EU) No 1093/2010.