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Markets in Financial Instruments Directive II (MiFID II)
Article 57

Article 57 — Position limits and position management controls in commodity derivatives

  1. Member States shall ensure that competent authorities, in line with the methodology for calculation determined by ESMA, establish and apply position limits on the size of a net position which a person can hold at all times in commodity derivatives traded on trading venues and economically equivalent OTC contracts. The limits shall be set on the basis of all positions held by a person and those held on its behalf at an aggregate group level in order to:
    (a)

    prevent market abuse;

    (b)

    support orderly pricing and settlement conditions, including preventing market distorting positions, and ensuring, in particular, convergence between prices of derivatives in the delivery month and spot prices for the underlying commodity, without prejudice to price discovery on the market for the underlying commodity.

    Position limits shall not apply to positions held by or on behalf of a non-financial entity and which are objectively measurable as reducing risks directly relating to the commercial activity of that non-financial entity.

  2. Position limits shall specify clear quantitative thresholds for the maximum size of a position in a commodity derivative that persons can hold.
  3. ESMA shall develop draft regulatory technical standards to determine the methodology for calculation that competent authorities are to apply in establishing the spot month position limits and other months’ position limits for physically settled and cash settled commodity derivatives based on the characteristics of the relevant derivative. The methodology for calculation shall take into account at least the following factors:
    (a)

    the maturity of the commodity derivative contracts;

    (b)

    the deliverable supply in the underlying commodity;

    (c)

    the overall open interest in that contract and the overall open interest in other financial instruments with the same underlying commodity;

    (d)

    the volatility of the relevant markets, including substitute derivatives and the underlying commodity markets;

    (e)

    the number and size of the market participants;

    (f)

    the characteristics of the underlying commodity market, including patterns of production, consumption and transportation to market;

    (g)

    the development of new contracts.

    ESMA shall take into account experience regarding the position limits of investment firms or market operators operating a trading venue and of other jurisdictions.

    ESMA shall submit those draft regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph to the Commission by 3 July 2015.

    Power is delegated to the Commission to adopt the regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph in accordance with Articles 10 to 14 of Regulation (EU) No 1095/2010.

  4. A competent authority shall set limits for each contract in commodity derivatives traded on trading venues based on the methodology for calculation determined by ESMA in accordance with paragraph 3. That position limit shall include economically equivalent OTC contracts.

    A competent authority shall review position limits where there is a significant change in deliverable supply or open interest or any other significant change on the market, based on its determination of deliverable supply and open interest and reset the position limit in accordance with the methodology for calculation developed by ESMA.

  5. Competent authorities shall notify ESMA of the exact position limits they intend to set in accordance with the methodology for calculation established by ESMA under paragraph 3. Within two months following receipt of the notification, ESMA shall issue an opinion to the competent authority concerned assessing the compatibility of position limits with the objectives of paragraph 1 and with the methodology for calculation established by ESMA under paragraph 3. ESMA shall publish the opinion on its website. The competent authority concerned shall modify the position limits in accordance with ESMA’s opinion, or provide ESMA with justification why the change is considered to be unnecessary. Where a competent authority imposes limits contrary to an ESMA opinion, it shall immediately publish on its website a notice fully explaining its reasons for doing so.

    Where ESMA determines that a position limit is not in line with the methodology for calculation in paragraph 3, it shall take action in accordance with its powers under Article 17 of Regulation (EU) No 1095/2010.

  6. Where the same commodity derivative is traded in significant volumes on trading venues in more than one jurisdiction, the competent authority of the trading venue where the largest volume of trading takes place (the central competent authority) shall set the single position limit to be applied on all trading in that contract. The central competent authority shall consult the competent authorities of other trading venues on which that derivative is traded in significant volumes on the single position limit to be applied and any revisions to that single position limit. Where competent authorities do not agree, they shall state in writing the full and detailed reasons why they consider that the requirements laid down in paragraph 1 are not met. ESMA shall settle any dispute arising from a disagreement between competent authorities in accordance with its powers under Article 19 of Regulation (EU) No 1095/2010.

    The competent authorities of the trading venues where the same commodity derivative is traded and the competent authorities of position holders in that commodity derivative shall put in place cooperation arrangements including exchange of relevant data with each other in order to enable the monitoring and enforcement of the single position limit.

  7. ESMA shall monitor at least once a year the way competent authorities have implemented the position limits set in accordance with the methodology for calculation established by ESMA under paragraph 3. In doing so, ESMA shall ensure that a single position limit effectively applies to the same contract irrespective of where it is traded in line with paragraph 6.
  8. Member States shall ensure that an investment firm or a market operator operating a trading venue which trades commodity derivatives apply position management controls. Those controls shall include at least, the powers for the trading venue to:
    (a)

    monitor the open interest positions of persons;

    (b)

    access information, including all relevant documentation, from persons about the size and purpose of a position or exposure entered into, information about beneficial or underlying owners, any concert arrangements, and any related assets or liabilities in the underlying market;

    (c)

    require a person to terminate or reduce a position, on a temporary or permanent basis as the specific case may require and to unilaterally take appropriate action to ensure the termination or reduction if the person does not comply; and

    (d)

    where appropriate, require a person to provide liquidity back into the market at an agreed price and volume on a temporary basis with the express intent of mitigating the effects of a large or dominant position.

  9. The position limits and position management controls shall be transparent and non-discriminatory, specifying how they apply to persons and taking account of the nature and composition of market participants and of the use they make of the contracts submitted to trading.
  10. The investment firm or market operator operating the trading venue shall inform the competent authority of the details of position management controls.

    The competent authority shall communicate the same information as well as the details of the position limits it has established to ESMA, which shall publish and maintain on its website a database with summaries of the position limits and position management controls.

  11. The position limits of paragraph 1 shall be imposed by competent authorities pursuant to point (p) of Article 69(2).
  12. ESMA shall develop draft regulatory technical standards to determine:
    (a)

    the criteria and methods for determining whether a position qualifies as reducing risks directly relating to commercial activities;

    (b)

    the methods to determine when positions of a person are to be aggregated within a group;

    (c)

    the criteria for determining whether a contract is an economically equivalent OTC contract to that traded on a trading venue, referred to in paragraph 1, in a way that facilitates the reporting of positions taken in equivalent OTC contracts to the relevant competent authority as determined in Article 58(2);

    (d)

    the definition of what constitutes the same commodity derivative and significant volumes under paragraph 6 of this Article;

    (e)

    the methodology for aggregating and netting OTC and on-venue commodity derivatives positions to establish the net position for purposes of assessing compliance with the limits. Such methodologies shall establish criteria to determine which positions may be netted against one another and shall not facilitate the build-up of positions in a manner inconsistent with the objectives set out in paragraph 1 of this Article;

    (f)

    the procedure setting out how persons may apply for the exemption under the second subparagraph of paragraph 1 of this Article and how the relevant competent authority will approve such applications;

    (g)

    the method for calculation to determine the venue where the largest volume of trading in a commodity derivative takes place and significant volumes under paragraph 6 of this Article.

    ESMA shall submit those draft regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph to the Commission by 3 July 2015.

    Power shall be delegated to the Commission to adopt the regulatory technical standards referred to in the first subparagraph in accordance with Articles 10 to 14 of Regulation (EU) No 1095/2010.

  13. Competent authorities shall not impose limits which are more restrictive than those adopted pursuant to paragraph 1 except in exceptional cases where they are objectively justified and proportionate taking into account the liquidity of the specific market and the orderly functioning of that market. Competent authorities shall publish on their website the details of the more restrictive position limits they decide to impose, which shall be valid for an initial period not exceeding six months from the date of their publication on the website. The more restrictive position limits may be renewed for further periods not exceeding six months at a time if the grounds for the restriction continue to be applicable. If not renewed after that six-month period, they shall automatically expire.

    Where competent authorities decide to impose more restrictive position limits, they shall notify ESMA. The notification shall include a justification for the more restrictive position limits. ESMA shall, within 24 hours, issue an opinion on whether it considers that the more restrictive position limits are necessary to address the exceptional case. The opinion shall be published on ESMA’s website.

    Where a competent authority imposes limits contrary to an ESMA opinion, it shall immediately publish on its website a notice fully explaining its reasons for doing so.

  14. Member States shall provide that competent authorities can apply their powers to impose sanctions under this Directive for the infringements of position limits set in accordance with this Article to:
    (a)

    positions held by persons situated or operating in its territory or abroad which exceed the limits on commodity derivative contracts the competent authority has set in relation to contracts on trading venues situated or operating in its territory or economically equivalent OTC contracts;

    (b)

    positions held by persons situated or operating in its territory which exceed the limits on commodity derivative contracts set by competent authorities in other Member States.