contents table Lexparency.org
European Market Infrastructure Regulation (EMIR)
Article 2

Article 2 — Definitions

For the purposes of this Regulation, the following definitions shall apply:

  1. CCP means a legal person that interposes itself between the counterparties to the contracts traded on one or more financial markets, becoming the buyer to every seller and the seller to every buyer;
  2. trade repository means a legal person that centrally collects and maintains the records of derivatives;
  3. clearing means the process of establishing positions, including the calculation of net obligations, and ensuring that financial instruments, cash, or both, are available to secure the exposures arising from those positions;
  4. trading venue means a system operated by an investment firm or a market operator within the meaning of Article 4(1)(1) and 4(1)(13) of Directive 2004/39/EC other than a systematic internaliser within the meaning of Article 4(1)(7) thereof, which brings together buying or selling interests in financial instruments in the system, in a way that results in a contract in accordance with Title II or III of that Directive;
  5. derivative or derivative contract means a financial instrument as set out in points (4) to (10) of Section C of Annex I to Directive 2004/39/EC as implemented by Article 38 and 39 of Regulation (EC) No 1287/2006;
  6. class of derivatives means a subset of derivatives sharing common and essential characteristics including at least the relationship with the underlying asset, the type of underlying asset, and currency of notional amount. Derivatives belonging to the same class may have different maturities;
  7. OTC derivative or OTC derivative contract means a derivative contract the execution of which does not take place on a regulated market within the meaning of Article 4(1)(14) of Directive 2004/39/EC or on a third-country market considered to be equivalent to a regulated market in accordance with Article 2a of this Regulation;
  8. financial counterparty means:
    1. an investment firm authorised in accordance with Directive 2014/65/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council(1);
    2. a credit institution authorised in accordance with Directive 2013/36/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council(2);
    3. an insurance undertaking or reinsurance undertaking authorised in accordance with Directive 2009/138/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council(3);
    4. a UCITS and, where relevant, its management company, authorised in accordance with Directive 2009/65/EC, unless that UCITS is set up exclusively for the purpose of serving one or more employee share purchase plans;
    5. an institution for occupational retirement provision (IORP), as defined in point (1) of Article 6 of Directive (EU) 2016/2341 of the European Parliament and of the Council(4);
    6. an alternative investment fund (AIF), as defined in point (a) of Article 4(1) of Directive 2011/61/EU, which is either established in the Union or managed by an alternative investment fund manager (AIFM) authorised or registered in accordance with that Directive, unless that AIF is set up exclusively for the purpose of serving one or more employee share purchase plans, or unless that AIF is a securitisation special purpose entity as referred to in point (g) of Article 2(3) of Directive 2011/61/EU, and, where relevant, its AIFM established in the Union;
    7. a central securities depository authorised in accordance with Regulation (EU) No 909/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council(5);
  9. non-financial counterparty means an undertaking established in the Union other than the entities referred to in points (1) and (8);
  10. pension scheme arrangement means:
    1. institutions for occupational retirement provision within the meaning of Article 6(a) of Directive 2003/41/EC, including any authorised entity responsible for managing such an institution and acting on its behalf as referred to in Article 2(1) of that Directive as well as any legal entity set up for the purpose of investment of such institutions, acting solely and exclusively in their interest;
    2. occupational retirement provision businesses of institutions referred to in Article 3 of Directive 2003/41/EC;
    3. occupational retirement provision businesses of life insurance undertakings covered by Directive 2002/83/EC, provided that all assets and liabilities corresponding to the business are ring-fenced, managed and organised separately from the other activities of the insurance undertaking, without any possibility of transfer;
    4. any other authorised and supervised entities, or arrangements, operating on a national basis, provided that:
      1. they are recognised under national law; and
      2. their primary purpose is to provide retirement benefits;
  11. counterparty credit risk means the risk that the counterparty to a transaction defaults before the final settlement of the transaction’s cash flows;
  12. interoperability arrangement means an arrangement between two or more CCPs that involves a cross-system execution of transactions;
  13. competent authority means the competent authority referred to in the legislation referred to in point (8) of this Article, the competent authority referred to in Article 10(5) or the authority designated by each Member State in accordance with Article 22;
  14. clearing member means an undertaking which participates in a CCP and which is responsible for discharging the financial obligations arising from that participation;
  15. client means an undertaking with a contractual relationship with a clearing member of a CCP which enables that undertaking to clear its transactions with that CCP;
  16. group means the group of undertakings consisting of a parent undertaking and its subsidiaries within the meaning of Articles 1 and 2 of Directive 83/349/EEC or the group of undertakings referred to in Article 3(1) and Article 80(7) and (8) of Directive 2006/48/EC;
  17. financial institution means an undertaking other than a credit institution, the principal activity of which is to acquire holdings or to carry on one or more of the activities listed in points (2) to (12) of Annex I to Directive 2006/48/EC;
  18. financial holding company means a financial institution, the subsidiary undertakings of which are either exclusively or mainly credit institutions or financial institutions, at least one of such subsidiary undertakings being a credit institution, and which is not a mixed financial holding company within the meaning of Article 2(15) of Directive 2002/87/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2002 on the supplementary supervision of credit institutions, insurance undertakings and investment firms in a financial conglomerate(6);
  19. ancillary services undertaking means an undertaking the principal activity of which consists in owning or managing property, managing data-processing services, or a similar activity which is ancillary to the principal activity of one or more credit institution;
  20. qualifying holding means any direct or indirect holding in a CCP or trade repository which represents at least 10 % of the capital or of the voting rights, as set out in Articles 9 and 10 of Directive 2004/109/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 December 2004 on the harmonisation of transparency requirements in relation to information about issuers whose securities are admitted to trading on a regulated market(7), taking into account the conditions regarding aggregation thereof laid down in Article 12(4) and (5) of that Directive, or which makes it possible to exercise a significant influence over the management of the CCP or trade repository in which that holding subsists;
  21. parent undertaking means a parent undertaking as described in Articles 1 and 2 of Directive 83/349/EEC;
  22. subsidiary means a subsidiary undertaking as described in Articles 1 and 2 of Directive 83/349/EEC, including a subsidiary of a subsidiary undertaking of an ultimate parent undertaking;
  23. control means the relationship between a parent undertaking and a subsidiary, as described in Article 1 of Directive 83/349/EEC;
  24. close links means a situation in which two or more natural or legal persons are linked by:
    1. participation, by way of direct ownership or control, of 20 % or more of the voting rights or capital of an undertaking; or
    2. control or a similar relationship between any natural or legal person and an undertaking or a subsidiary of a subsidiary also being considered a subsidiary of the parent undertaking which is at the head of those undertakings.

    A situation in which two or more natural or legal persons are permanently linked to one and the same person by a control relationship shall also be regarded as constituting a close link between such persons.

  25. capital means subscribed capital within the meaning of Article 22 of Council Directive 86/635/EEC of 8 December 1986 on the annual accounts and consolidated accounts of banks and other financial institutions(8) in so far it has been paid up, plus the related share premium accounts, it fully absorbs losses in going concern situations, and, in the event of bankruptcy or liquidation, it ranks after all other claims;
  26. reserves means reserves as set out in Article 9 of Fourth Council Directive 78/660/EEC of 25 July 1978 based on Article 54(3)(g) of the Treaty on the annual accounts of certain types of companies(9) and profits and losses brought forward as a result of the application of the final profit or loss;
  27. board means administrative or supervisory board, or both, in accordance with national company law;
  28. independent member of the board means a member of the board who has no business, family or other relationship that raises a conflict of interests regarding the CCP concerned or its controlling shareholders, its management or its clearing members, and who has had no such relationship during the five years preceding his membership of the board;
  29. senior management means the person or persons who effectively direct the business of the CCP or the trade repository, and the executive member or members of the board;
  30. covered bond means a bond meeting the requirements of Article 129 of Regulation (EU) No 575/2013;
  31. covered bond entity means the covered bond issuer or cover pool of a covered bond.