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eCommerce Directive
Article 9

Article 9 — Treatment of contracts

  1. Member States shall ensure that their legal system allows contracts to be concluded by electronic means. Member States shall in particular ensure that the legal requirements applicable to the contractual process neither create obstacles for the use of electronic contracts nor result in such contracts being deprived of legal effectiveness and validity on account of their having been made by electronic means.
  2. Member States may lay down that paragraph 1 shall not apply to all or certain contracts falling into one of the following categories:
    1. contracts that create or transfer rights in real estate, except for rental rights;
    2. contracts requiring by law the involvement of courts, public authorities or professions exercising public authority;
    3. contracts of suretyship granted and on collateral securities furnished by persons acting for purposes outside their trade, business or profession;
    4. contracts governed by family law or by the law of succession.
  3. Member States shall indicate to the Commission the categories referred to in paragraph 2 to which they do not apply paragraph 1. Member States shall submit to the Commission every five years a report on the application of paragraph 2 explaining the reasons why they consider it necessary to maintain the category referred to in paragraph 2(b) to which they do not apply paragraph 1.